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Wednesday, September 25, 2013

The Justice of God: Οικουμένα in Greek Isopsephia is exactly 666

The Justice of God: Οικουμένα in Greek Isopsephia is exactly 666

(That number, 666, is the number of the Antichrist to come. Ecumenism is one base upon which he will arise)

Strain out the gnat and swallow the camel.

The Justice of God: Benediktos and Bergoglio

The first Palestinian above all others is Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.

Let be accursed any gospel other than that which was preached at the beginning, received not from man but from Christ Jesus, thou alone, in whom we have redemption through thy all holy infinitely pure and undefiled blood, the remission of our sins, who in the future shall recreate the heavens and the earth, called by thine special choice, who before hoped in Christ with all who heard the word of truth and believed, sealed with the Holy Spirit of the promise, who is the pledge of our inheritance, to the redemption of the possession, for the praise of his glory, in faith in the Lord Jesus, and of love for all the saints in unceasing intercession of all the elect angels and saints of God, virgins, with all thanksgiving, that the God of our Lord Jesus Christ, the Father of glory, may grant us the spirit of wisdom and revelation in deep knowledge of him; the eyes of our minds being enlightened, to know the hope of his calling, the riches of the glory of his inheritance in the saints, and the exceeding greatness of his power towards us who believe, according to the working of his mighty power wrought in Christ the only first born from the dead in the flesh raised above all things he made subject under his feet, we who hold him the head directly and no other, Christ Jesus our only Lord and Saviour immortal son of the immortal Father in the unity and power and bond of love of the immortal Holy Spirit our Paraclete unto the ages of the ages. Amen.

A prayer of Isaias the Prophet.Is. 26: 9-21

(Isaias' prophecy, which is also his prayer.)

O Lord our God, grant us peace. Out of the night my spirit waketh at dawn unto Thee, O God; for Thy commandments are a light upon the earth. Learn righteousness, all ye that dwell upon the earth. For the ungodly man hath come to an end; every one that learneth not righteousness upon the earth shall not be able to do truth; let the ungodly be taken away, that he may not see the glory of the Lord. O Lord, Thine arm is lifted up, and they knew it not; but when they know it, let them be put to shame. Zeal shall lay hold upon an untaught people, and now fire shall devour the adversaries. O Lord our God, bestow Thy peace upon us, for Thou hast given all things unto us. O Lord our God, take us for Thy possession. O Lord, we know no other beside Thee; we call upon Thy name. But the dead shall not see life, neither shall physicians raise them up; therefore hast Thou brought wrath upon them, and hast slain them, and hast taken every man of them away. Bring more evils upon them, Lord; bring more evils upon them that are glorious upon the earth. O Lord, in trouble we remembered Thee; with small affliction was Thy chastening with us. And as a woman in travail draweth nigh to be delivered, and crieth out in her travail, so have we become in the presence of Thy beloved. We have conceived, O Lord, because of Thy fear, and have suffered pangs, and have brought forth the spirit of Thy salvation, which we have wrought upon the earth. We shall not fail, but all those that dwell upon the earth shall fail. The dead shall arise, and they that are in the tomb shall awake, and they that are upon the earth shall rejoice. For the dew which Thou sendest is healing unto them; but the land of the ungodly shall perish. Go, my people, enter into thine inner chamber, shut thy door, hide thyself for a little season [during the Great Tribulation, hidden in mountains and dens and caves of the earth - there is NO secret rapture which is only an heretical apostate Lurianic Talmudic Judaic doctrine], until the anger of the Lord shall pass away.

Glory be to the Father, and to the Son, and to the Holy Spirit. As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end. Amen.

Note in the below that this is a description of the evil that precedes the Antichrist who is the Abomination of Desolation. Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ then comes after the reign of Antichrist has proceeded for a while. Antichrist, his reign and the False Prophet and all their followers are then destroyed by the Second Coming of Our Lord Jesus Christ from heaven with all His elect Angels and sent to hell forever. The saints will then reign with Our Lord Jesus Christ at their head on earth forever.

Palestine, which is properly the Holy Land for in it walked God in the flesh, Jesus Christ, and there He allowed Himself to be sacrificed for the salvation of those who profess Him from the heart and with the mouth, is a miniature of all the evil that has come upon the earth and there will the final evil be concentrated in its fullness and rule from there for a short time.

Writing in the second century, St. Hippolytus wrote the following about the evil that will abound before the coming of Antichrist:

The temples of God will be like [pagan] houses, and there will be overturnings of the churches everywhere. The Scriptures will be despised, and everywhere they will sing the songs of the adversary. Fornications, and adulteries, and perjuries will fill the land; sorceries, and incantations, and divinations will follow after these with all force and zeal. And, on the whole, from among those who profess to be Christians will rise up then false prophets, false apostles, impostors, mischief-makers, evil-doers, liars against each other, adulterers, fornicators, robbers, grasping, perjured, mendacious, hating each other. The shepherds will be like wolves; the priests will embrace falsehood; the monks will lust after the things of the world; the rich will assume hardness of heart; the rulers will not help the poor; the powerful will cast off all pity; the judges will remove justice from the just, and, blinded with bribes, they will call in unrighteousness.

St. Hippolytus of Rome, Treatise on the end of the world and on Antichrist

The Justice of God: Οικουμένα Oikoumena, Satan puts forth his world view and the sixth False Prophet since the 1958 conclave of the beginning of the Great Apostasy's push to consume mankind in the Ecumenical LIE

Οικουμένα in Greek Isopsephia is exactly 666

Οικουμένα, English spelling: Oikoumena. From Oikoumene, Οἰκουμένη in the Greek, is the root meaning "whole world," [literally "world" but in the context it was used by the ancients it meant whole world and is taken that way by the Ecumenists at all points] and is the word from which "Ecumenical," in the Ecumenical Movement is taken.

Oikoumena, Oikoumene, Ecumenism is simply Gnosticism which was utterly Satanic and still is. Oikoumena, meaning all space and time, is mirrored in the Far East by Vairochana, an androgyne "Buddha." Like all supposed "Buddhas" there are three aspects. Those are based on the ancient Graeco Egyptian religion and its triple gods and triple goddesses (not to be confused with the Triune One Holy God, The Father and the Son Jesus Christ and the Holy Spirit). Those triple gods and triple goddesses had an earthly and celestial and chthonic (West, infernal - far East, subsumation into the void or attaining Nirvana) aspect. The "Buddhas" have the same aspects. When unified in their final form of being, then the chthonic (read Diabolic) powers become spread throughout the world. Both are concepts and supposed essential realities that falsely claim a closed eternal finite universe with no existence of the Lord God Almighty, Pantocrator, having created and ruling over all. The Lord God Almighty thrice Holy Pantocrator is true and these false gods/goddesses are false. These false gods/goddesses are only hiding places for the Devil and the fallen angels and demons. 

Vairochana in the celestial aspect as androgyne-female aspect Kwan Yin equivalent in the West to Chiun - Remphan - Saturn:


Ancient pagan lies - and the Rothschilds in America and Russia and Y'israHell - The Judeo-Masonic C
click on picture - Chiun - Saturn - Kwan Yin - Remphan (Rempham)

Vairochana in its final aspect is supposedly the core of all phenomena at the center of a finite eternal universe and resonating throughout it, an immanent power in an uncreated and impersonal universe. Further, its cause of being is a logos. There are many logos in paganism. The Messiah of Israel, was known to be and is the True and only Word, Logos in Greek, Dabar in Hebrew, of the Father Almighty, and is only Jesus Christ who became Incaranate for our salvation. 

The pagan logos are the culmination of the whole world wide polytheistic interlaced pagan system instigated by Satan, first in the garden of Eden with his temptation of Adam and Eve and then again post flood at the Tower of Babel with Nimrud's religion of worship of the Devil and its false projection, the mother goddess Nammu, as a trap into the void which is the Devil's mental conception of the universe, and the Devil's place therein - that conception is simply a trap devised by the Devil and has no truth of any sort to it including the Devil's self assigned place therein. In fact the Devil is Belial in both the Old Testament and New Testament, which means "nothingness" i.e. John 8:44 - everything the Devil says is a lie - everything.

The Mark, the Name, the Number of the beast and the Tower of Babel = Ecumenism: The Mark of the beast

Originally there were in ancient religion {biblical, faithful to God} four elements (fire spirit water earth) with spirit deleted by the pagans and air and then also and/or aether [space] inserted. These were variously identified with the visible planets and gods/goddesses of the pagans. The order was also rearranged variously and finally a sixth element was added: universal mind (just as the heretical interpretation of Jesus Christ as the impersonal word of God, instead of enhypostasia which is correct that Jesus Christ is the Person-al Son and Word of God incarnate). Finally language was seen as the mystical means of connecting with the powers of the gods/goddesses (actually Satan and the other fallen angels and the demons [demons are, according to the Church Fathers, the non-human souls of the pre-flood nephilim]), and with that alpha-numeric theosophies, namely Hebrew Gematria (Greek and Roman variations are Isopsephia) were especially used. These connections were for the sorcery/magic astrological control over the elements (Greek – stoichea) and even other men. Trigrams, pentagrams, hexagrams et al were symbols used in conjunction with this. The final Mark of the Beast will not be accidental or co-incidental. The final mark of the Antichrist (the Beast) will be willful knowingly on purpose representation of the damned individual’s name by gematria/isopsephia spelling of his name to equal 666. He will seek to impress this knowingly on all men.

Eternal faith and beliefs: Christian Belief 2 Section One through Five

a dragon with the heads of a bull and a lion, and between the two the visage of a god, and he had upon his shoulders wings, and his name was Never-Aging Time (Chronos agêraos) abroad throughout all space and reacheth to the ends of the world, and she is both male and female. 

Note Number One: Enlil (Chaldea, Sumer Assyro-Babylonian) Enlil was the most important deity of the Sumerian pantheon. The center of his cult was in Babylon. Enlil himself the air god, earth god, and storm god (particularly hurricanes) is the son of heaven, personified as the god An, and earth, personified as the goddess Ki. In Sumerian cosmogony, Nammu is the eternal primeval sea (this should be understood as the primal void); the mother of all the gods and the one who gave birth to heaven personified as the god An, and earth, who is personified as the goddess Ki (this should be understood as an emanation or simultaneous procession from the void in a moment of time. This is not the same as God creating, ex nihilo, including time itself as part of His creation). Their union (An and Ki) created the air god Enlil separated from An and Ki (heaven and earth) and the universe was created as heaven and earth separated by Enlil, air (See Section Three: THE ORIGINATOR OF ALL OF THIS IN THE PAGAN SYSTEMS IS THE SERPENT/DRAGON FROM THE COSMIC EGG – THE COSMOCRATORAS OF THE PAGANS AND THE GNOSTICS “cosmocratoras of this darkness” Ephesians 6:12). Enlil was known as lord of the storm, lord of the spirits on earth and in the air, and ghosts. He was the patron god of the city of Nippur, where his temple was called E- Kur (the mountain house). The name Enlil means "lord of the ghost-world." All of this refers to his being Satan - the Devil, the arches or archon of the “spiritual wickednesses” condemned by St. Irenaeus (quoting St. Paul, Ephesians 6:12) in Irenaeus’ creed at the beginning where St. Irenaeus says “…that He (Jesus Christ) may (will) send ‘spiritual wickednesses’, and the angels who transgressed and became apostates, together with the ungodly, and unrighteous, and wicked, and profane among men, into everlasting fire…”.

Take especial note of the highly sophisticated Pantheist/Monist system of ancient Chaldaea (extremely like the Mahayana Buddhist perception [both totally wrong of course!] of how existence came into being of the action of an immanent demiurge, or principle from the void). This fulfills completely all the requirements raised by Theistic Evolution and it’s most recent variation, Intelligent Design, and yet does not draw one logically to belief in the True God Who is ABOVE all and a Personal being of infinite Majesty (for instance, His glory reflected in His angels: doxas). This points out the diabolic trap that Intelligent Design really is. We must stay with a rock basic confession of Who God is. He created us, not the other way around! The true God is the God of REVELATION, not theory!

_鬼: A 鬼

A 鬼

Greek is in Isopsephia.

Pundarika is from Sanskrit and is the base for all the demonic and corrupt Buddhist lies against the true God, the creator of heaven and earth. ...Pundarika is transliterated exactly to the Greek with the exact English equivalent to the Sanskrit and Greek.

Pundarika is given in the Greek under the English.

The Cosmic Christ – Cosmocrator (the Gnostic name for the False-Christ the Gnostics worshipped and which was actually Satan as immanent god of the universe) and the fruits of that bad tree


80+ 400+ 50+ 4+ 1+ 100+ 10+ 20+ 1=666

Note: pundarika in Sanskrit (the above English and Greek are direct transliterations letter for letter from the Sanskrit) is literally “the great white dragon in the abyss” which is the core and basis of the whole esoteric tradition, priesthood, and the dainichi nyorai (the head of the diabolic trinity of the dragon in Buddhism). The dainichi nyorai is also the exact very basis for their magic/sorcery with it’s six elements they manipulate. Elements here are exactly the stoichea in Col. 2:8.

This has nothing to do with The Lord Jesus Christ. There is salvation only in Our Lord Jesus Christ.


8 Beware lest any man cheat you by philosophy and vain deceit: according to the tradition of men according to the elements (Gr: stoichea) of the world and not according to Christ. (DRV)

Also see and beware of: 666

And: The Justice of God: The Rebuilt Temple

Reject the Antichrist and remain faithful to Our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ.


14 ¶ For this cause I bow my knees to the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ,

15 Of whom all paternity in heaven and earth is named:

16 That he would grant you, according to the riches of his glory, to be strengthened by his Spirit with might unto the inward man:

17 That Christ may dwell by faith in your hearts: that, being rooted and founded in charity,

18 You may be able to comprehend, with all the saints, what is the breadth and length and height and depth,

19 To know also the charity of Christ, which surpasseth all knowledge: that you may be filled unto all the fulness of God.

20 Now to him who is able to do all things more abundantly than we desire or understand, according to the power that worketh in us:

21 To him be glory in the church and in Christ Jesus, unto all generations, world without end. Amen.


Saint John the Apostle and Evangelist absolutely refutes the pagan lies.
Holy Gospel of John 1:1 In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 2 The same was in the beginning with God. 3 All things were made by him: and without him was made nothing that was made. 4 In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 5 And the light shineth in darkness, and the darkness did not comprehend it.

Our Lord Jesus Christ, the Word of God, was known to come when He did by the prophets who God gave to foretell His First Coming. We are told of His Second Coming by His prophecy and the constant witness of the true, the faithful, Church. He will return in the future as He promised and resurrect and judge all men either saved into the kingdom of heaven or damned to hell for eternity. We are to be faithful awaiting His return as the five wise virgins in Saint Matthew's Gospel, Chapter 25.

Satan and its progeny: fallen angels - the devils, and the demons, are all in the darkness and all the false gods they masquerade as, such as Vairochana/Kwan Yin/Chiun/Saturn/Remphan, are just lies in the darkness.

These lies are Gnosticism and have always been used for the Diabolic evil of heresy and apostasy by the enemies of the Church that God in the Flesh Himself Jesus Christ Our Only Lord and Saviour, with only Himself as the head, established.
There has been massive reporting on the usual Buddhist presence by the Vatican’s invitation to the installation of the Diabolic False Prophet Francis the Poor Devil Chief Sorcerer of Babylon the Proud. God will humble Babylon. It will happen as God has made known in prophecy, Apocalypse 18.
Strikingly Bergoglio bears a resemblance, since his gaunt days are now gone, to Vairochana. Talk about a living idol. 
See these terms used in the Declaration of Masonic Illuminism and their service to the Devil of Nostrae Aetate below.
hidden power - The reference is to Satan
some indeed have come to the recognition of a Supreme Being, or even of a Father – In Masonry, God is optional for those in the lower degrees of Masonry in order to trap them into Masonry which actually ONLY worships the Devil.
supreme illumination – Diabolic false light of “enlightenment” shared by Buddhists and Masons.
sacred rites – Hindu temple dancing prostitutes and murdering children and Hindu wives as offering to Kali and Buddhist pederasty and Tibetan Book of the Dead cutting still beating heart out of expiring Dalai Lama so the new one can eat it and become “enlightened.” 
nonetheless often reflect a ray of that Truth – Like all the rest ABSOLUTE UTTER BLASPHEMY AGAINST GOD AND HIS CHRIST WHO ALONE ARE THE TRUTH. Vairochana and its hidden power which is the same as Oikumena in Greek are actually Satan resonating with rays of occult Diabolic power throughout what they only claim is a finite closed universe of its own creation. This is utterly shown by God and His Christ to be an absolute lie from hell by the Devil.

The below is nothing but Masonic Universalist Satanic absolute Apostasy

ON OCTOBER 28, 1965

2. From ancient times down to the present, there is found among various peoples a certain perception of that hidden power which hovers over the course of things and over the events of human history; at times some indeed have come to the recognition of a Supreme Being, or even of a Father. This perception and recognition penetrates their lives with a profound religious sense.

Religions, however, that are bound up with an advanced culture have struggled to answer the same questions by means of more refined concepts and a more developed language. Thus in Hinduism, men contemplate the divine mystery and express it through an inexhaustible abundance of myths and through searching philosophical inquiry. They seek freedom from the anguish of our human condition either through ascetical practices or profound meditation or a flight to God with love and trust. Again, Buddhism, in its various forms, realizes the radical insufficiency of this changeable world; it teaches a way by which men, in a devout and confident spirit, may be able either to acquire the state of perfect liberation, or attain, by their own efforts or through higher help, supreme illumination. Likewise, other religions found everywhere try to counter the restlessness of the human heart, each in its own manner, by proposing "ways," comprising teachings, rules of life, and sacred rites. The Catholic Church rejects nothing that is true and holy in these religions. She regards with sincere reverence those ways of conduct and of life, those precepts and teachings which, though differing in many aspects from the ones she holds and sets forth, nonetheless often reflect a ray of that Truth which enlightens all men. Indeed, she proclaims, and ever must proclaim Christ "the way, the truth, and the life" (John 14:6), in whom men may find the fullness of religious life, in whom God has reconciled all things to Himself.(4)
4. Cf 2 Cor. 5:18-19
18 But all things are of God, who hath reconciled us to himself by Christ and hath given to us the ministry of reconciliation. 19 For God indeed was in Christ, reconciling the world to himself, not imputing to them their sins. And he hath placed in us the word of reconciliation.

But see St. Paul as he continues and exhorts Christians to have nothing to do with pagans and declares that the pagans are of Belial which is the Devil:

2 Corinthians 6:14-18 (Douay-Rheims)
14 Bear not the yoke with unbelievers. For what participation hath justice with injustice? Or what fellowship hath light with darkness? 15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial? Or what part hath the faithful with the unbeliever? 16 And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols? For you are the temple of the living God: as God saith: I will dwell in them and walk among them. And I will be their God: and they shall be my people. 17 Wherefore: Go out from among them and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean thing: 18 And I will receive you. And will be a Father to you: and you shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord Almighty.

"nonetheless often reflect a ray of that Truth – Like all the rest ABSOLUTE UTTER BLASPHEMY AGAINST GOD AND HIS CHRIST WHO ALONE ARE THE TRUTH. Vairochana and its hidden power which is the same as Oikumena in Greek are actually Satan resonating with rays of occult Diabolic power throughout what they only claim is a finite closed universe of its own creation."

Idols of Vairochana. Vairochana is integral to all of Buddhism.

Vairochana (Japanese Dainichi Nyorai) is the center of a five element pentad controlling the whole universe. This is absolute sorcery.

Dainichi Nyorai with the sixth element, Satan, with cosmic rays of Diabolic occult hidden power emanating throughout the closed universe. This is absolute Diabolic possession.
The six elements of Dainichi Nyorai
1. Earth
2. Water
3. Fire
4. Air
5. Space
6. universal Mind

The rearranging of the Biblical elements and addition and subtraction of elements and further rearranging therefrom is an integral part of the Satanic sorcery of Vairochana/Dainichi Nyorai, typical of the same of all pagan gods/goddesses.

From above:

"Originally there were in ancient religion {biblical, faithful to God} four elements (fire spirit water earth) with spirit deleted by the pagans and air and then also and/or aether [space] inserted. These were variously identified with the visible planets and gods/goddesses of the pagans. The order was also rearranged variously and finally a sixth element was added: universal mind...."

Vairochana is the center of a pentad (central point with four radiations) where Vairochana is equivalent to the element of earth and the “Buddhas” that emanate from Vairochana are equivalent to water, fire, air and space. The four emanations are also equivalent to south, west, north, and east. That is a total of five elements and is in their system a physical totality. When the sixth, universal Mind literally - but Satan himself is meant, is added it then assumes a absolute Diabolic reality – total Diabolic possession for anyone who gives themselves over to it.

Kukai, who brought the Diabolic esoteric sorcerous teaching of Vairochana/Dainichi Nyorai from China to Japan, centuries before Francis Xavier came to Japan, taught the Satanic lie that even Jesus Christ was part of the emanations of Dainichi Nyorai. Dainichi Nyorai is the triple dragon god which is the Devil. The Devil has no part in Jesus Christ - John 14:30 "I will not now speak many things with you. For the prince of this world [ the Devil l cometh, and in me he hath not any thing." [Clementine Vulgate Latin] "I am non multa loquar vobiscum. venit enim princeps mundi huius, et in me non habet quidquam." When the Jesuit Francis Xavier came to Japan he first used Dainichi Nyorai as a name for God - that was blasphemy and he corrected it and used a phonetic western word in Japanese in its place. Nostrae Aetate is no simple mistake it is totally on purpose absolute APOSTASY. 

In the below, a number of the manifold forms of the Diabolic evil of heresy and apostasy are refuted by Saint Hippolytus, who was the disciple of Saint Irenaeus who was the disciple of Saint Polycarp who was the disciple of Saint John the last Apostle and Evangelist.

Among the many other lies of the heretics below are the rearranging of the elements (Greek - stoichea) of creation. Saint Hippolytus gives us the proper order: 

"(The Doctrine of the Truth): The different principles, however, of what will come into existence, He first fabricated, viz., fire and spirit, water and earth, from which diverse elements He proceeded to form His own creation."

Especially refuted in the below are Arch-Heretics Callistus and Zephrynus. Today their modern equivalent are the False Prophets-Antipopes Benedict/Ratzinger and Francis/Bergoglio.

Parousia of Jesus Christ Our Lord: Excerpts from Hippolytus of Rome Who withstood the Arch-Heretics Callistus and Zephryinus - Benediktos and Bergoglio are modern equivalents of Heresiarchs Callistus and Zephryinus

We must not overlook any figment devised by those denominated philosophers among the Greeks. For even their incoherent tenets must be received as worthy of credit, on account of the excessive madness of the heretics; who, from the observance of silence, and from concealing their own ineffable mysteries, have by many been supposed worshippers of God ... since I perceive that they have not been abashed by our forbearance, and have made no account of how God is long-suffering, though blasphemed by them, in order that either from shame they may repent, or should they persevere, be justly condemned, I am forced to proceed in my intention of exposing those secret mysteries of theirs (Refutation of all heresies- Proemium).

In order, then, as we have already stated, that we may prove them atheists, both in opinion and their mode (of treating a question) and in fact, and (in order to show) whence it is that their attempted theories have accrued unto them, and that they have endeavoured to establish their tenets, taking nothing from the holy Scriptures -nor is it from preserving the succession of any saint that they have hurried headlong into these opinions;- but that their doctrines have derived their origin from the wisdom of the Greeks, from the conclusions of those who have formed systems of philosophy, and from would-be mysteries, and the vagaries of astrologers (Proemium). 

And he (Pythagoras) is reported to have ordered his followers not to eat beans, because that Zaratas said that, at the origin and concretion of all things, when the earth was still undergoing its process of solidification, and that of putrefaction had set in, the bean was produced. And of this he mentions the following indication, that if any one, after having chewed a bean without the husk, places it opposite the sun for a certain period, - for this immediately will aid in the result,- it yields the smell of human seed. And he mentions also another clearer instance to be this: if, when the bean is blossoming, we take the bean and its flower, and deposit them in a jar, smear this over, and bury it in the ground, and after a few days uncover it, we shall see it wearing the appearance, first of a woman's pudendum, and after this, when closely examined, of the head of a child growing in along with it (Refutation, 1.2).

(Heraclitus) asserted that he himself knew everything, whereas the rest of mankind nothing. But he also advanced statements almost in concert with Empedocles, saying that the originating principle of all things is discord and friendship, and that the Deity is a fire endued with intelligence, and that all things are borne one upon another, and never are at a standstill; and just as Empedocles, he affirmed that the entire locality about us is full of evil things, and that these evil things reach as far as the moon, being extended from the quarter situated around the earth, and that they do not advance further, inasmuch as the entire space above the moon is more pure (R1.4).

(Anaximander) declared the Infinite to be an originating principle and element of existing things, being the first to employ such a denomination of the originating principle. But, moreover, he asserted that there is an eternal motion, by the agency of which it happens that the heavens are generated; but that the earth is poised aloft, upheld by nothing, continuing (so) on account of its equal distance from all (the heavenly bodies); and that the figure of it is curved, circular, similar to a column of stone. And one of the surfaces we tread upon, but the other is opposite. And that the stars are a circle of fire, separated from the fire which is in the vicinity of the world, and encompassed by air. And that certain atmospheric exhalations arise in places where the stars shine; wherefore, also, when these exhalations are obstructed, that eclipses take place (R1.5).

But Anaximenes, who himself was also a native of Miletus, and son of Eurystratus, affirmed that the originating principle is infinite air, out of which are generated things existing, those which have existed, and those that will be, as well as gods and divine (entities), and that the rest arise from the offspring of this ... And he says that the stars do not move under the earth, as some have supposed, but around the earth, just as a cap is turned round our head; and that the sun is hid, not by being under the earth, but because covered by the higher portions of the earth, and on account of the greater distance that he is from us (R1.6).

(Anaxagoras) affirmed the originating principle of the universe to be mind and matter; mind being the efficient cause, whereas matter that which was being formed. For all things coming into existence simultaneously, mind supervening introduced order ... And that the earth is in figure plane; and that it continues suspended aloft, by reason of its magnitude, and by reason of there being no vacuum, and by reason of the air, which was most powerful, bearing along the wafted earth ... And that the moon, being lower than the sun, is nearer us. And that the sun surpasses the Peloponnesus in size. And that the moon has not light of its own, but from the sun. But that the revolution of the stars takes place under the earth. And that the moon is eclipsed when the earth is interposed, and occasionally also those (stars) that are underneath the moon. And that the sun (is eclipsed) when, at the beginning of the month, the moon is interposed (R1.7).

(Archelaus held) that the earth is at rest, and that on this account it came into existence; and that it lies in the centre, being no part, so to speak, of the universe, delivered from the conflagration (R1.8).

(Parmenides) asserted that the world would be destroyed, but in what way he does not mention. The same (philosopher), however, affirmed the universe to be eternal, and not generated, and of spherical form and homogeneous, but not having a figure in itself, and immoveable and limited (R1.9).

(Democritus) makes statements similarly with Leucippus concerning elements, viz. plenitude and vacuum, denominating plenitude entity, and vacuum nonentity; and this he asserted, since existing things are continually moved in the vacuum. And he maintained worlds to be infinite, and varying in bulk (R1.11).

Xenophanes is of opinion that there had been a mixture of the earth with the sea, and that in process of time it was disengaged from the moisture, alleging that he could produce such proofs as the following: that in the midst of earth, and in mountains, shells are discovered; and also in Syracuse he affirms was found in the quarries the print of a fish and of seals, and in Paros an image of a laurel in the bottom of a stone, and in Melita parts of all sorts of marine animals (R1.12).

Plato (lays down) that there are three originating principles of the universe, (namely) God, and matter, and exemplar ... And that the exemplar, which he likewise calls ideas, is the intelligence of the Deity, to which, as to an image in the soul, the Deity attending, fabricated all things ... That matter, therefore, is an originating principle, and coeval with the Deity, and that in this respect the world is uncreated (R1.16).

In most points he (Aristotle) is in agreement with Plato, except the opinion concerning soul. For Plato affirms it to be immortal, but Aristotle that it involves permanence; and after these things, that this also vanishes in the fifth body, which he supposes, along with the other four (elements), -viz., fire, and earth, and water, and air,- to be a something more subtle (than these), of the nature of spirit (R1.17).

(The Stoics) likewise supposed God to be the one originating principle of all things, being a body of the utmost refinement, and that His providential care pervaded everything; and these speculators were positive about the existence of fate everywhere (R1.18).

Epicurus, however, advanced an opinion almost contrary to all. He supposed, as originating principles of all things, atoms and vacuity ... he says that God has providential care for nothing, and that there is no such thing at all as providence or fate, but that all things are made by chance ... and that the Deity surrendered Himself to pleasure, and took His ease in the midst of supreme happiness; and that neither has He any concerns of business, nor does He devote His attention to them (R1.19).

But there is also with the Indians a sect composed of those philosophizing among the Brachmans (R1.21).

(Astrologers) say that the stars are attended as if by satellites when they are in the midst of other stars, in continuity with the signs of the Zodiac; as if, when any particular star may have occupied the first portions of the same sign of the Zodiac, and another the last, and another those portions in the middle, that which is in the middle is said to be guarded by those holding the portions at the extremities (Refutation of all heresies 4.1).

The originating principle, and, as it were, foundation, of the entire (Chaldean) art, is fixing the horoscope. For from this are derived the rest of the cardinal points, as well as the declinations and ascensions, the triangles and squares, and the configurations of the stars in accordance with these; and from all these the predictions are taken. Whence, if the horoscope be removed, it necessarily follows that neither any celestial object is recognisable in the meridian, or at the horizon, or in the point of the heavens opposite the meridian; but if these be not comprehended, the entire system of the Chaldeans vanishes along with (them) (R4.3).

For this reason it is impossible to fix the horoscope from the (period of) conception. But neither can this be done from (that of) birth ... For when they allege that the person sitting beside the woman in travail at the time of parturition gives, by striking a metallic rim, a sign to the Chaldean, who from an elevated place is contemplating the stars, and he, looking towards heaven, marks down the rising zodiacal sign; in the first place, we shall prove to them, that when parturition happens indefinitely, as we have shown a little before, neither is it easy to signify this (birth) by striking the metallic rim (R4.4).

If, as the mathematicians assert, it is necessary that one born under the barb of Sagittarius' arrow should meet with a violent death, how was it that so many myriads of the Barbarians that fought with the Greeks at Marathon or Salamis were simultaneously slaughtered? For unquestionably there was not the same horoscope in the case, at all events, of them all. And again, it is said that one born under the urn of Aquarius will suffer shipwreck: (yet) how is it that so many of the Greeks that returned from Troy were overwhelmed in the deep around the indented shores of Euboea? (R4.5).

But I am rather of opinion, that the ancients imposed the names of received animals upon certain specified stars, for the purpose of knowing them better, not from any similarity of nature (R4.6).

This Ptolemy, however -a careful investigator of these matters- does not seem to me to be useless; but only this grieves (one), that being recently born, he could not be of service to the sons of the giants, who, being ignorant of these measures, and supposing that the heights of heaven were near, endeavoured in vain to construct a tower. And so, if at that time he were present to explain to them these measures, they would not have made the daring attempt ineffectually (R4.12).

Certain, adhering partly to these, as if having propounded great conclusions, and supposed things worthy of reason, have framed enormous and endless heresies; and one of these is Colarbasus, who attempts to explain religion by measures and numbers (R4.13).

I think that there has been clearly expounded the mind of arithmeticians, who, by means of numbers and of names, suppose that they interpret life. Now I perceive that these, enjoying leisure, and being trained in calculation, have been desirous that, through the art delivered to them from childhood, they, acquiring celebrity, should be styled prophets (R4.15).

There are some who ascribe to the stars figures that mould the ideas and dispositions of men, assigning the reason of this to births (that have taken place) under particular stars; they thus express themselves (R4.15).

(The sorcerer), taking (a paper), directs the inquirer to write down with water whatever questions he may desire to have asked from the demons. Then, folding up the paper, and delivering it to the attendant, he sends him away to commit it to the flames, that the ascending smoke may waft the letters to demons (R4.28).

But putting a skull on the ground, they make it speak in this manner. The skull itself is made out of the caul of an ox; and when fashioned into the requisite figure, by means of Etruscan wax and prepared gum, (and) when this membrane is placed around, it presents the appearance of a skull, which seems to all to speak when the contrivance operates (R4.41).

These are the deeds of the magicians, and innumerable other such (tricks) there are which work on the credulity of the dupes, by fair balanced words, and the appearance of plausible acts. And the heresiarchs, astonished at the art of these (sorcerers), have imitated them, partly by delivering their doctrines in secrecy and darkness, and partly by advancing (these tenets) as their own (R4.42).

In the four preceding books I have very elaborately explained the opinions propounded by all the speculators among both Greeks and Barbarians, respecting the Divine Nature and the creation of the world; and not even have I omitted the consideration of their systems of magic ... It remains, therefore, to hasten on to the refutation of the heresies; but it is for the purpose of furnishing this (refutation) that we have put forward the statements already made by us. For from philosophers the heresiarchs deriving starting-points, (and) like cobblers patching together, according to their own particular interpretation, the blunders of the ancients, have advanced them as novelties to those that are capable of being deceived (Refutation of all heresies 5.1).

... Those who have presumed to celebrate a serpent, the originator of the error (in question), through certain expressions devised by the energy of his own (ingenuity). The priests, then, and champions of the system, have been first those who have been called Naasseni, being so denominated from the Hebrew language, for the serpent is called naas (in Hebrew).

Subsequently, however, they have styled themselves Gnostics, alleging that they alone have sounded the depths of knowledge (R5.1).

These (Naasseni), then, according to the system advanced by them, magnify, (as the originating cause) of all things else, a man and a son of man ... of this man one part is rational, another psychical, another earthly ... according to these, there are three kinds of all existent things -angelic, psychical, earthly; and there are three churches- angelic, psychical, earthly; and the names of these are elect, called, captive(R5.1).

These (Gnostic heretics), collecting together the secret and ineffable mysteries of all the Gentiles, are uttering falsehoods against Christ, and are making dupes of those who are not acquainted with these orgies of the Gentiles ... In order, therefore, that finally the Great Man from above may be overpowered, "from whom," as they say, "the whole family named on earth and in the heavens has been formed, to him was given also a soul, that through the soul he might suffer; and that the enslaved image may be punished of the Great and most Glorious and Perfect Man (R5.2).

For of soul, say they, is every nature desirous, and each in a different manner. For soul is cause of all things made; all things that are nourished, (the Naassene) says, and that grow, require soul. For it is not possible, he says, to obtain any nourishment or growth where soul is not present (R5.2).

They make, however, the following assertion: he who says that all things derive consistence from one, is in error; but he who says that they are of three, is in possession of the truth, and will furnish a solution of the (phonomena of the) universe. For there is, says (the Naassene), one blessed nature of the Blessed Man, of him who is above, (namely) Adam; and there is one mortal nature, that which is below; and there is one kingless generation, which is begotten above (R5.3).

For the Samothracians expressly hand down, in the mysteries that are celebrated among them, that (same) Adam as the primal man. And habitually there stand in the temple of the Samothracians two images of naked men, having both hands stretched aloft towards heaven, andtheir pudenda erecta, as with the statue of Mercury on Mount Cyllene. And the aforesaid images are figures of the primal man, and of that spiritual one that is born again, in every respect of the same substance with that man (R5.3).

Now he who makes these statements is, he says, the Perfect Man that is imaged from the unportrayable one from above. The Perfect Man therefore cannot, he says, be saved, unless, entering in through this gate, he be born again (R5.3).

The secret mysteries, "which (also we speak), not in words taught of human wisdom, but in those taught of the Spirit, comparing spiritual things with spiritual. But the natural man receiveth not the things of the Spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him." And these are, he says,the ineffable mysteries of the Spirit, which we alone (the Gnostics) are acquainted with. 

Concerning these, he says, the Saviour has declared, "No one can come unto me, except my heavenly Father draw some one unto me." For it is very difficult, he says, to accept and receive this great and ineffable mystery ... "the ends," he says, are the seeds scattered from the unportrayable One upon the world, through which the whole cosmical system is completed; for through these also it began to exist ... none becomes a hearer of these mysteries, unless only the perfect Gnostics (R5.3).

These, he says, are the inferior mysteries, those appertaining to carnal generation. Now, those men who are initiated into these inferior (mysteries) ought to pause, and (then) be admitted into the great (and) heavenly (ones). For they, he says, who obtain their shares (in this mystery), receive greater portions. For this, he says, is the gate of heaven; and this a house of God, where the Good Deity dwells alone. And into this (gate), he says, no unclean person shall enter, nor one that is natural or carnal; but it is reserved for the spiritual only (R5.3).

The Phrygians, however, further assert that the father of the universe is "Amygdalus" ... from which proceeded and was born the Invisible (One), "by whom all things were made, and nothing was made without Him." And the Phrygians say that what has been thence produced is "Syrictas" (piper), because the Spirit that is born is harmonious ... The Spirit, however, he says, is there where likewise the Father is named, and the Son is there born from this Father. This, he says, is the many-named, thousand-eyed Incomprehensible One, of whom every nature -each, however, differently- is desirous. This, he says, is the Word of God, which, he says, is a word of revelation of the Great Power. Wherefore it will be sealed, and hid, and concealed, lying in the habitation where lies the basis of the root of the universe (R5.4).

These doctrines, then, the Naasseni attempt to establish, calling themselves Gnostics. But since the error is many-headed and diversified, resembling, in truth, the hydra that we read of in history; when, at one blow, we have struck off the heads of this (delusion) by means of refutation, employing the wand of truth, we shall entirely exterminate the monster. For neither do the remaining heresies present much difference of aspect from this, having a mutual connection through (the same) spirit of error (R5.6).

There is also unquestionably a certain other (head of the hydra, namely, the heresy) of the Peratae, whose blasphemy against Christ has for many years escaped notice. And the present is a fitting opportunity for bringing to light the secret mysteries of such (heretics). These allege that the world is one, triply divided. And of the triple division with them, one portion is a certain single originating principle, just as it were a huge fountain, which can be divided mentally into infinite segments. Now the first segment, and that which, according to them, is (a segment) in preference (to others), is a triad, and it is called a Perfect Good, (and) a Paternal Magnitude. And the second portion of the triad of these is, as it were, a certain infinite crowd of potentialities that are generated from themselves, (while) the third is formal (Refutation of all heresies 5.7).

(The Peratic) then says that Christ descended from above from unorigination, that by His descent all things triply divided might be saved. For some things, he says, being borne down from above, will ascend through Him, whereas whatever (beings) form plots against those which are carried down from above are cast off, and being placed in a state of punishment, are renounced ... For the third portion, which he styles the world (in which we are), must perish; but the two (remaining portions), which are situated above, must be rescued from corruption (R5.7).

Falsifying the name of truth, proclaim as a doctrine of Christ an insurrection of Aeons and revolts of good into (the ranks of) evil powers; and they speak of the confederations of good powers with wicked ones. Denominating them, therefore, Toparchai and Proastioi, and (though thus) framing for themselves very many other names not suggested (to them from other sources), they have yet unskilfully systematized the entire imaginary doctrine of the astrologers concerning the stars. And since they have introduced a supposition pregnant with immense error, they shall be refuted through the instrumentality of our admirable arrangement (R5.8).

(The Peratae) suppose that the causes of the generation of all begotten things are things unbegotten and superjacent, and that the world with us has been produced after the mode of emanation, which (world) they denominate formal. And (they maintain) that all those stars together which are beheld in the firmament have been causes of the generation of this world (R5.10).

According to them (the Peratae), the universe is Father, Son, (and) Matter; (but) each of these three has endless capacities in itself. Intermediate, then, between the Matter and the Father sits the Son, the Word, the Serpent, always being in motion towards the unmoved Father, and (towards) Matter itself in motion. And at one time he is turned towards the Father, and receives the powers into his own person; but at another time takes up these powers, and is turned towards Matter. And Matter, (though) devoid of attribute, and beingunfashioned, moulds (into itself) forms from the Son which the Son moulded from the Father (R5.12).

If any one, he says, of those (beings) which are here will have strength to perceive that he is a paternal mark transferred hither from above, (and that he is) incarnate - just as by the conception resulting from the rod a something white is produced, - he is of the same substance altogether with the Father in heaven, and returns thither ... When, however, (the Son) remarks, "Your father is a murderer from the beginning," he alludes to the Ruler and Demiurge of matter, who, appropriating the marks delivered from the Son, generated him herewho from the beginning was a murderer, for his work causes corruption and death ... as he brought down from above the paternal marks, so again he carries up from thence those marks roused from a dormant condition and rendered paternal characteristics, substantial ones from the unsubstantial Being, transferring them hither from thence (R5.12).

Let us then see what the Sethians affirm. To these it appears that there are three definite principles of the universe, and that each of these principles possesses infinite powers ... The entire system of their doctrine, however, is (derived) from the ancient theologians Musaeus, and Linus, and Orpheus, who elucidates especially the ceremonies of initiation, as well as the mysteries themselves ... The Sethians, then, affirm that the theory concerning composition and mixture is constituted according to the following method: The luminous ray from above is intermingled, and the very diminutive spark is delicately blended in the dark waters beneath; and (both of these) become united, and are formed into one compound mass (R5.14-16).

(Justinus) makes the following statement. There are three unbegotten principles of the universe, two male (and) one female. Of the male (principles), however, a certain one, is denominated good, and it alone is called after this manner, and possesses a power of prescience concerning the universe. But the other is father of all begotten things, devoid of prescience, and invisible. And the female (principle) is devoid of prescience, passionate, two-minded, two-bodied ... he says, Paradise being formed from the conjugal joy of Elohim and Edem, the angels of Elohim receiving from the most beauteous earth ... Elohim, then, coming to the highest part of heaven above, and beholding a light superiorto that which He Himself had created, exclaimed, "Open me the gates, that entering in I may acknowledge the Lord; for I considered Myself to be Lord." (R5.21).

It seems, then, expedient likewise to explain now the opinions of Simon (Magus), a native of Gitta, a village of Samaria; and we shall also prove that his successors, taking a starting-point from him, have endeavoured (to establish) similar opinions under a change of name. This Simon being an adept in sorceries, both making a mockery of many, partly according to the art of Thrasymedes, in the manner in which we have explained above, and partly also by the assistance of demons perpetrating his villany, attempted to deify himself (Refutation of all heresies 6.2).

Apsethus the Libyan inordinately longed to become a god; but when, after repeated intrigues, he altogether failed to accomplish his desire, he nevertheless wished to appear to have become a god; and he did at all events appear, as time wore on, to have in reality become a god. Forthe foolish Libyans were accustomed to sacrifice unto him as to some divine power ... Now there are very many parrots throughout Libya, and very distinctly these imitate the human voice. This man, having for a time nourished the birds, was in the habit of teaching them to say, "Apsethus is a god." (R6.3).

In this way we must think concerning Simon the magician, so that we may compare him unto the Libyan, far sooner than unto Him who, though made man, was in reality God. If, however, the assertion of this likeness is in itself accurate, and the sorcerer was the subject of a passion similar to Apsethus, let us endeavour to teach anew the parrots of Simon, that Christ, who stood, stands, and will stand, (that is, was, is, and is to come,) was not Simon (R6.4).

Inasmuch as the fire is of this description, according to Simon, and since all things are visible and invisible, (and) in like manner resonant and not resonant, numerable and not subjects of numeration; he denominates in the Great Announcement a perfect intelligible (entity), after such a mode, that each of those things which, existing indefinitely, may be infinitely comprehended, both speaks, and understands, and acts in such a manner as Empedocles speaks of (R6.6).

According to Simon, therefore, there exists that which is blessed and incorruptible in a latent condition in every one - (that is,) potentially, not actually; and that this is He who stood, stands, and is to stand ... And that, he says, the originating principle of the generation of things begotten is from fire, he discerns after some such method as the following. Of all things, (i.e.) of whatsoever there is a generation, the beginning of the desire of the generation is from fire (R6.12).

(Simon teaches that) there are two offshoots from all the Aeons, having neither beginning nor end, from one root. And this is a power, viz., Sige, (who is) invisible (and) incomprehensible. And one of these (offshoots) appears from above, which constitutes a great power, (the creative) Mind of the universe, which manages all things, (and is) a male. The other (offshoot), however, is from below, (and constitutes) a great Intelligence, and is a female which produces all things. From whence, ranged in pairs opposite each other, they undergo conjugal union, and manifest an intermediate interval, namely, an incomprehensible air, which has neither beginning nor end (R6.13).

He fastens an allegorical meaning on (the story of) the wooden horse and Helen with the torch, and on very many other (accounts), which he transfers to what relates to himself and to Intelligence ... the powers below -who, he says, created the world- caused the transference from one body to another of (Helen's soul); and subsequently she stood on the roof of a house in Tyre, a city of Phoenicia, and on going down thither (Simon professed to have) found her. For he stated that, principally for the purpose of searching after this (woman), he had arrived (in Tyre), in order that he might rescue her from bondage ... But the filthy fellow, becoming enamoured of this miserable woman called Helen,purchased her (as his slave), and enjoyed her person (R6.14).

But, again, those who become followers of this impostor -I mean Simon the sorcerer-indulge in similar practices, and irrationally allege the necessity of promiscuous intercourse. They express themselves in the manner following: "All earth is earth, and there is no difference where any one sows, provided he does sow." But even they congratulate themselves on account of this indiscriminate intercourse, asserting that this is perfect love (R6.14).

This Simon, deceiving many in Samaria by his sorceries, was reproved by the Apostles, and was laid under a curse, as it has been written in the Acts. But he afterwards abjured the faith, and attempted these (aforesaid practices). And journeying as far as Rome, he fell in with the Apostles; and to him, deceiving many by his sorceries, Peter offered repeated opposition. This man, ultimately repairing to ... (and) sitting under a plane tree, continued to give instruction (in his doctrines). And in truth at last, when conviction was imminent, in case he delayed longer, be stated that, if he were buried alive, he would rise the third day. And accordingly, having ordered a trench to be dug by his disciples, he directed himself to be interred there. They, then, executed the injunction given; whereas he remained (in that grave) until this day, for he was not the Christ (R6.15).

Pythagoras, then, declared the originating principle of the universe to be the unbegotten monad, and the generated duad, and the rest of the numbers. And he says that the monad it the father of the duad, and the duad the mother of all things that are being begotten -the begotten one (being mother) of the things that are begotten ... And all solid bodies he generates from incorporeal (essences). For he asserts that an element and principle of both corporeal and incorporeal entities is the point which is indivisible. And from a point, he says, is generated a line, and from a line a surface; and a surface flowing out into a height becomes, he says, a solid body (Refutation of all heresies 6.18).

Nothing, he (Pythagoras) says, of intelligibles can be known to us from sense. For he says neither eye has seen, nor ear heard, nor any whatsoever of the other senses known that (which is cognised by mind). Neither, again, by reason is it possible to arrive at a knowledge of any of the things discernible by sense ... Things being thus constituted, the arrangement of things that have been made and are being made is observed to happen in conformity with numerical (combinations) ... Now, in their system, Love forms the world incorruptible (and) eternal, as they suppose. For substance and the world are one. Discord, however, separates and puts asunder, and evinces numerous attempts by subdividing to form the world (R6.19-20).

And from this (Pythagorean system), not from the Gospels, Valentinus, as we have proved, has collected the (materials of) heresy - I mean his own (heresy)- and may (therefore) justly be reckoned a Pythagorean and Platonist, not a Christian ... For, likewise, according to these (Valentinians), the originating cause of the universe is a Monad, unbegotten, imperishable, incomprehensible, inconceivable, productive, and a cause of the generation of all existent things. And the aforesaid Monad is styled by them Father (R6.24).

There is, says (Valentinus), not anything at all begotten, but the Father is alone unbegotten, not subject to the condition of place, not (subject to the condition of) time, having no counsellor, (and) not being any other substance that could be realized according to the ordinary methods of perception ... He was all love, but love is not love except there may be some object of affection. The Father Himself, then, as He was solitary, projected and produced Nous and Aletheia, that is, a duad which became mistress, and origin, and mother of all the Aeons computed by them (as existing) within the Pleroma. Nous and Aletheia being projected from the Father, one capable of continuing generation, deriving existence from a productive being, (Nous) himself likewise, in imitation of the Father, projected Logos and Zoe; and Logos and Zoe project Anthropos and Ecclesia (R6.24).

Since, however, Nous and Aletheia were begotten, and did not possess paternal (and) perfect uncreatedness, Logos and Zoe do not glorify Nous their father with a perfect number, but far from it, with an imperfect one. For Logos and Zoe offer twelve Aeons unto Nous and Aletheia ... But of the twelve, the twelfth and youngest of all the twenty-eight Aeons, being a female, and called Sophia, observed the multitude and power of the besetting Aeons, and hurried back into the depth of the Father. And she perceived that all the rest of the Aeons, as being begotten, generate by conjugal intercourse (R6.25).

(Sophia) wished to emulate the Father, and to produce (offspring) of herself without a marital partner, that she might achieve a work in no wise inferior to (that of) the Father. (Sophia, however,) was ignorant that the Unbegotten One, being an originating principle of the universe, as well as root and depth and abyss, alone possesses the power of self-generation ... Sophia, therefore, prepared to project that only which she was capable (of projecting), viz., a formless and undigested substance (R6.25).

Ignorance, therefore, having arisen within the Pleroma in consequence of Sophia, and shapelessness in consequence of the offspring of Sophia,confusion arose in the Pleroma. (For all) the Aeons that were begotten (became overwhelmed with apprehension, imagining) that in like manner formless and incomplete progenies of the Aeons should be generated; and that some destruction, at no distant period, should l at length seize upon the Aeons ... The Father, then, compassionating the tears of Sophia, and accepting the supplication of the Aeons, orders a further projection. For he did not, (Valentinus) says, himself project, but Nous and Aletheia (projected) Christ and the Holy Spirit for the restoration of Form (R6.26).

After, then, there ensued some one (treaty of) peace and harmony between all the Aeons within the Pleroma, it appeared expedient to them not only by a conjugal union to have magnified the Son, but also that by an offering of ripe fruits they should glorify the Father. Then all the thirty Aeons consented to project one Aeon, joint fruit of the Pleroma, that he might be (an earnest) of their union, and unanimity, and peace. And he alone was projected by all the Aeons in honour of the Father ... "The Fruit," then, arriving outside the Pleroma, and discovering (Sophia) in the midst of those four primary passions, both fear and sorrow, and perplexity and entreaty he rectified her affections (R6.27).

Sophia from above exerted her energy from the Ogdoad to the Hebdomad. For the Demiurge, they say, knows nothing at all, but is, according to them, devoid of understanding, and silly, and is not conscious of what he is doing or working at. But in him, while thus in a state of ignorance that even he is producing, Sophia wrought all sorts of energy, and infused vigour (into him). And (although Sophia) was really the operating cause, he himself imagines that he evolves the creation of the (visible) world out of himself: whence he commenced, saying, "I am God, and beside me there is no other." (R6.28).

From the material and divilish essence the Demiurge fashioned bodies for the souls ... And this is the material man, as it were, according to them an inn, or domicile, at one time of soul only, at another time of soul and demons, at another time of soul and Logoi. And these are the Logoi that have been dispersed from above, from the "Joint Fruit of the Pleroma" and (from) Sophia, into this world. And they dwell in an earthly body, with a soul, when demons do not take up their abode with that soul (R6.29).

A certain other teacher among them, Marcus, an adept in sorcery, carrying on operations partly by sleight of hand and partly by demons, deceived many from time to time. This (heretic) alleged that there resided in him the mightiest power from invisible and unnameable places (R6.34).
But Marcus, imitating his teacher, himself also feigns a vision, imagining that in this way he would be magnified. For Valentinus likewise alleges that he had seen an infant child lately born; and questioning (this child), he proceeded to inquire who it might be. And (the child) replied, saying that he himself is the Logos, and then subjoined a sort of tragic legend; and out of this (Valentinus) wishes the heresy attempted by him to consist. Marcus, making a similar attempt with this (heretic), asserts that the Tetrad came to him in the form of a woman (R6.37).

Since, therefore, in the six books preceding this, we have explained previous (heretical opinions), it now seems proper not to be silent respecting the (doctrines) of Basilides, which are the tenets of Aristotle the Stagyrite, not (those) of Christ (Refutation of all heresies 7.2).
The world is divided, according to Aristotle, into very numerous and diversified parts. Now the portion of the world which extends from the earth to the moon is devoid of foresight, guideless, and is under the sway of that nature alone which belongs to itself. But another (part of the world which lies) beyond the moon, and extends to the surface of heaven, is arranged in the midst of all order and foresight and governance. Now, the (celestial) superficies constitutes a certain fifth substance, and is remote from all those natural elements out of which the cosmical system derives consistence. And this is a certain fifth Substance, according to Aristotle, -as it were, a certain super-mundane essence (R7.7).

The definition, however, which Aristotle furnishes of the Deity is, I admit, not difficult to ascertain, but it is impossible to comprehend the meaning of it. For, he says, (the Deity) is a "conception of conception;" but this is altogether a non-existent (entity). The world, however, is incorruptible (and) eternal, according to Aristotle. For it has in itself nothing faulty, inasmuch as it is directed by Providence and Nature ... When, therefore, Basilides has been discovered, not in spirit alone, but also in the actual expressions and names, transferring the tenets of Aristotleinto our evangelical and saving doctrine, what remains, but that, by restoring what he has appropriated from others, we should prove to the disciples of this (heretic) that Christ will in no wise profit them, inasmuch as they are heathenish? (R7.7).

These (Basilidians) "non-existent,"-inconceivably, insensibly, indeterminately, involuntarily, impassively, (and) unactuated by desire, willed to create a world ... In this way,"non-existent" God made the world out of nonentities, casting and depositing some one Seed that contained in itself a conglomeration of the germs of the world (R7.9).

There existed, he (Basilides) says, in the Seed itself, a Sonship, threefold, in every respect of the same Substance with the non-existent God, (and) begotten from nonentities. Of this Sonship (thus) involving a threefold division, one part was refined, (another gross,) and another requiring purification ... (the gross portion) was much more deficient in the refinement that the Sonship possessed, which through itself hurried upwards, (and so it) was left behind ... the (gross) Sonship, carried upwards by the Spirit as by a wing, bears aloft (in turn) its pinion, that is, the Spirit. And it approaches the refined Sonship, and the non-existent God, even Him who fabricated the world out of nonentities (R7.10).

Existing things were distributed by Basilides into two continuous and primary divisions, and are, according to him, denominated partly in a certain (respect) world, and partly in a certain (respect) super-mundane (spaces). But the spirit, a line of demarcation between the world and super-mundane (spaces), is that which is both holy, and has abiding in itself the savour of Sonship. While, therefore, the firmament which is above the heaven is coining into existence, there burst forth, and was begotten from the cosmical Seed, and the conglomeration of all germs,the Great Archon (and) Head of the world (R7.11).

This (Archon), when begotten, raised Himself up and soared aloft, and was carried up entire as far as the firmament. And there He paused, supposing the firmament to be the termination of His ascension and elevation, and considering that there existed nothing at all beyond these ... he was not aware that there is (a Sonship) wiser and more powerful, and better than Himself. Therefore imagining Himself to be Lord, and Governor, and a wise Master Builder, He turns Himself to (the work of) the creation of every object in the cosmical system (R7.11).

The account, therefore, which Aristotle has previously rendered concerning the soul and the body, Basilides elucidates as applied to the Great Archon and his Son ... All things, therefore, have been provided for, and managed by the majesty of the Great Archon; (I mean) whatever objects exist in the aethereal region of space as far as the moon, for from that quarter onwards air is separated from aether (R7.12).

And it must needs be that the (portion of) Sonship which had been left behind ought likewise to be revealed and reinstated above ... Now,we who are spiritual are sons, he says, who have been left here to arrange, and mould, and rectify, and complete the souls which, according to nature, are so constituted as to continue in this quarter of the universe ... the Great Archon exercised dominion and possesses an empire with limits (only) extending as far as the firmament. And He imagines Himself alone to be God, and that there exists nothing above Him, for (the reason that) all things have been guarded by unrevealed Siope. This, he says, is the mystery which has not been made known to former generations (R7.13).

The Archon learned that He was not God of the universe, but was begotten. But (ascertaining that) He has above Himself the deposited treasure of that Ineffable and Unnameable (and) Non-existent One, and of the Sonship, He was both converted and filled with terror ... He (the Son of the Great Archon) proclaimed the Gospel to the Archon of the Hebdomad ... it was necessary, likewise, that afterwards the Formlessness existent in our quarter of creation should have radiance imparted to it, and that the mystery should be revealed to the Sonship, which had been left behind in Formlessness (scattered among human beings) (R7.14).

Gospel with them (Basilidians), as has been elucidated, is of super-mundane entities the knowledge which the Great Archon (of the Hebdomad) did not understand. As, then, it was manifested unto him that there are likewise the Holy Spirit -that is, the conterminous (spirit)- and the Sonship, and the Non-Existent God, the cause of all these, he rejoiced at the communications made to him, and was filled with exultation ... And through him (the Saviour) there was purified the third Sonship, which had been left (behind among human beings) for conferring benefits, and receiving them (R7.15).

But one Saturnilus, who flourished about the same period with Basilides, but spent his time in Antioch, (a city) of Syria, propounded opinions akin to whatever (tenets) Menander (advanced). He asserts that there is one Father, unknown to all -He who had made angels, archangels, principalities, (and) powers; and that by certain angels, seven (in number), the (visible) world was made, and all things that are in it. And (Saturnilus affirms) that man was a work of angels ... And the Saviour he supposed to be unbegotten and incorporeal, and devoid of figure. (Saturnilus,) however, (maintained that he) was manifested as man in appearance only. And he says that the God of the Jews is one of the angels, and, on account of the Father's wishing to deprive of sovereignty all the Archons, that Christ (the Saviour) came for the overthrow of the God of the Jews, and for the salvation of those that believe upon Him (R7.16).

But Marcion, a native of Pontus, far more frantic than these (heretics), omitting the majority of the tenets of the greater number (of speculators), (and) advancing into a doctrine still more unabashed, supposed (the existence of) two originating causes of the universe, alleging one of them to be a certain good (principle), but the other an evil one. And himself imagining that he was introducing some novel (opinion), founded a school full of folly, and attended by men of a sensual mode of life, inasmuch as he himself was one of lustful propensities(Refutation of all heresies 7.17).

When, therefore, Marcion or some one of his hounds barks against the Demiurge, and adduces reasons from a comparison of what is good and bad, we ought to say to them, that neither Paul the apostle nor Mark, he of the maimed finger, announced such (tenets). For none of these (doctrines) has been written in the Gospel according to Mark. But (the real author of the system) is Empedocles, son of Meto, a native of Agrigentum (R7.18).

(Marcion’s doctrine,) however, was that, independent of birth, (the Logos) Himself descended from above in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, and that, as being intermediate between the good and bad Deity, He proceeded to give instruction in the synagogues. For if He is a Mediator, He has been, he says, liberated from the entire nature of the Evil Deity. Now, as he affirms, the Demiurge is evil, and his works. For this reason, he affirms, Jesus came down unbegotten, in order that He might be liberated from all (admixture of) evil (R7.19).

Carpocrates affirms that the world and the things in it were made by angels, far inferior to the unbegotten Father; and that Jesus was generated of Joseph, and that, having been born similar to (other) men, He was more just than the rest (of the human race). And (Carpocrates asserts) that the soul (of Jesus), inasmuch as it was made vigorous and undefiled, remembered the things seen by it in its converse with the unbegotten God. And (Carpocrates maintains) that on this account there was sent down upon (Jesus) by that (God) a power, in order that through it He might be enabled to escape the world-making (angels). And (he says) that this power, having passed through all, and having obtained liberty in all, again ascended to God (Himself). And (he alleges) that in the same condition with (the soul of Jesus are all the souls) that embrace similar objects of desire with the (power just alluded to). And they assert that the soul of Jesus, (though,) according to law, it was disciplined in Jewish customs, (in reality) despised them (R7.20).

(The followers of Carpocrates) allege that the souls are transferred from body to body, so far as that they may fill up (the measure of) all their sins. When, however, not one (of these sins) is left, (the Carpocratians affirm that the soul) is then emancipated, and departs unto that God above of the world-making angels, and that in this way all souls will be saved. If, however, some (souls), during the presence of the soul in the body for one life, may by anticipation become involved in the full measure of transgressions, they, (according to these heretics,) no longer undergo metempsychosis (R7.20).

(The Ebionaeans) live conformably to the customs of the Jews, alleging that they are justified. according to the law, and saying that Jesus wasjustified by fulfilling the law (R7.22).

(Theodotus, who) was by trade a banker, attempted to establish (the doctrine), that a certain Melchisedec constitutes the greatest power, and that this one is greater than Christ (R7.24).
But one Cerdon himself also, taking occasion in like manner from these (heretics) and Simon, affirms that the God preached by Moses and the prophets was not Father of Jesus Christ. For (he contends) that this (Father) had been known, whereas that the Father of Christ was unknown, and that the former was just, but the latter good. And Marcion corroborated the tenet of this (heretic) in the work which he attempted to write, and which he styled Antitheses (R7.25).

But Apelles, sprung from these, thus expresses himself, (saying) that there is a certain good Deity, as also Marcion supposed, and that he who created all things is just. Now he, (according to Apelles,) was the Demiurge of generated entities. And (this heretic also main-rains) that there is a third (Deity), the one who was in the habit of speaking to Moses, and that this (god) was of a fiery nature, and that there was another fourth god, a cause of evils. But these he denominates angels. He utters, however, slanders against law and prophets, by alleging that the things that have been written are (of) human (origin), and are false (R7.26).

The Docetae maintain) that God is the primal (Being), as it were a seed of a fig-tree, which is altogether very diminutive in size, but infinite in power ... God Himself, however, remains with Himself, far separated from the three Aeons. When each of these Aeons had obtained an originating cause of generation, he grew, as has been declared, by little and little, and (by degrees) was magnified, and (ultimately) became perfect. But they think that that is perfect which is reckoned at ten. When, therefore, the Aeons had become equal in number and in perfection, they were, as (the Docetae) are of opinion, constituted thirty Aeons in all, while each of them attains full perfection in a decade(Refutation of all heresies 8.1).

All these Aeons, both the three and all those infinite (Aeons which proceed) from these indefinitely, are hermaphrodite Aeons. All these, then, after they had been increased and magnified, and had sprung from that one primary seed, (were actuated by a spirit) of concord and union, and they all coalesced into one Aeon. And in this manner they begot of a single virgin, Mary, a joint offspring, who is a Mediator, (that is,) the Saviour of all who are in the (covenant of) mediation (R8.2).

This third Aeon, however, beholding all his own distinctive attributes laid hold on collectively by the underlying darkness (which was) beneath, and not being ignorant of the power of darkness, and at the same time of the security and profusion of light, did not allow his brilliant attributes (which he derived) from above for any length of time to be snatched away by the darkness beneath. But (he acted in quite a contrary manner), for he subjected (darkness) to the Aeons (R8.2).

This fiery (Jewish) deity, then, after he became fire from light, proceeded to create the world in the manner which Moses describes. He himself, however, as devoid of subsistence, employs the darkness as (his) substance, and perpetually insults those eternal attributes of light which, (being) from above, had been laid hold on by (the darkness) beneath. Up to the time, therefore, of the appearance of the Saviour, there prevailed, by reason of the Deity of fiery light, (that is,) the Demiurge, a certain extensive delusion of souls. For the species are styled souls, because they are refrigerations from the (Aeons) above, and continue in darkness. But when (the souls) are altered from bodies to bodies, they remain under the guardianship of the Demiurge (R8.3).

When (the Son), however, became aware that the Aeons, those (that subsist) collectively, are unable to behold the Pleroma of all the Aeons, but that in a state of consternation they fear lest they may undergo corruption as being themselves perishable, and that they areoverwhelmed by the magnitude and splendour of power; -(when the Son, I say, perceived this,) He contracted Himself ... He entered into this world just as we have described Him, unnoticed, unknown, obscure, and disbelieved. In order, therefore, say the Docetae, that He may beclad in the darkness that is prevalent in more distant quarters of creation ... From the thirty Aeons, therefore, (the Son) assumed thirty forms ... Those, then, that derive their nature from the places below, are not able to see the forms of the Saviour which are above them (R8.3).

Monoïmus says that man (Oceanus) is the universe. Now the universe is the originating cause of all things, unbegotten, incorruptible, (and) eternal. And (he says) that the son of (the) man previously spoken of is begotten, and subject to passion, (and) that he is generated independently of time, (as well as) undesignedly, (and) without being predestinated (R8.5).

Monoïmus himself, accordingly, in his letter to Theophrastus, expressly makes the following statement: "Omitting to seek after God, and creation, and things similar to these, seek for Him from (out of) thyself, and learn who it is that absolutely appropriates (unto Himself) all things in thee, and says, 'My God (is) my mind, my understanding, my soul, my body.' And learn from whence are sorrow, and joy, and love, and hatred, and involuntary wakefulness, and involuntary drowsiness, and involuntary anger, and involuntary affection (R8.8).

Tatian, however, although being himself a disciple of Justinus the Martyr, did not entertain similar opinions with his master. But he attempted (to establish) certain novel (tenets), and affirmed that there existed certain invisible Aeons. And he framed a legendary account (of them), similarly to those (spoken of) by Valentinus. And similarly with Marcion, he asserts that marriage is destruction (R8.9).

But a certain Hermogenes, himself also imagining that he propounded some novel opinion, said that God made all things out of coeval and ungenerated matter. For that it was impossible that God could make generated things out of things that are not ... As He gazed (upon matter) in a seething condition, like (the contents of) a pot when a fire is burning underneath, He effected a partial separation. And taking one portion from the whole, He subdued it, but another He allowed to be whirled in a disorderly manner ... He acknowledges, however, that Christ is the Son of the God who created all things (R8.10).

And certain other (heretics), contentious by nature, (and) wholly uniformed as regards knowledge, as well as in their manner more (than usually) quarrelsome, combine (in maintaining) that Easter should be kept on the fourteenth day of the first month, according to the commandment of the law, on whatever day (of the week) it should occur ... In other respects, however, these consent to all the traditions delivered to the Church by the Apostles (R8.11).

But there are others who themselves are even more heretical in nature (than the foregoing). and are Phrygians by birth. These have been rendered victims of error from being previously captivated by (two) wretched women, called a certain Priscilla and Maximilla, whom they supposed (to be) prophetesses. And they assert that into these the Paraclete Spirit had departed; and antecedently to them, they in like manner consider Montanus as a prophet ... But they magnify these wretched women above the Apostles and every gift of Grace, so that some of them presume to assert that there is in them a something superior to Christ (R8.12).

(Encratites) suppose, that by meats they magnify themselves, while abstaining from animal food, (and) being water-drinkers, and forbidding to marry, and devoting themselves during the remainder of life to habits of asceticism (R8.13).

The greatest struggle now remains behind, viz., to furnish an account and refutation of those heresies that have sprung up in our own day, by which certain ignorant and presumptuous men have attempted to scatter abroad the Church, and have introduced the greatest confusion among all the faithful throughout the entire world (Refutation of all heresies 9.1).

There has appeared one, Noetus by name, and by birth a native of Smyrna. This person introduced a heresy from the tenets of Heraclitus. Now a certain man called Epigonus becomes his minister and pupil, and this person during his sojourn at Rome disseminated his godless opinion ... But (Zephyrinus) himself, being in process of time enticed away, hurried headlong into the same opinions; and he had Callistus as his adviser, and a fellow-champion of these wicked tenets (R9.2).

Now, even though the opinion of Heraclitus has been expounded by us previously in the Philosophumena, it nevertheless seems expedient now also to set down side by side in contrast the two systems, in order that by this closer refutation they may be evidently instructed. I mean the followers of this (heretic Noetus, Zephyrinus and Callistus), who imagine themselves to be disciples of Christ, when in reality they are not so, but of "the Obscure." (R9.3).

(Heraclitus likewise affirms) that there is "a harmony, as in a bow and lyre." That obscure harmony (is better), though unknown and invisible to men, he asserts in these words: "An obscure harmony is preferable to an obvious one." He commends and admires before what is known, that which is unknown and invisible in regard of its power. And that harmony visible to men, and not incapable of being discovered, is better, he asserts in these words: "Whatever things are objects of vision, hearing, and intelligence, these I pre-eminently honour," he says; that is, he prefers things visible to those that are invisible (R9.4).

In this manner Heraclitus assigns to the visible an equality of position and honour with the invisible, as if what was visible and what was invisible were confessedly some one thing ... the silly successors of Noetus, and the champions of his heresy, even though they have not been hearers of the discourses of Heraclitus, nevertheless, at any rate when they adopt the opinions of Noetus, undisguisedly acknowledge these (Heraclitean) tenets. For they advance statements after this manner -that one and the same God is the Creator and Father of all things; and that when it pleased Him, He nevertheless appeared, (though invisible,) to just men of old. (R9.5).

Now, that Noetus affirms that the Son and Father are the same, no one is ignorant. But he makes his statement thus: "When indeed, then, the Father had not been born, He yet was justly styled Father; and when it pleased Him to undergo generation, having been begotten, He Himself became His own Son, not another's." For in this manner he thinks to establish the sovereignty of God, alleging that Father and Son, so called, are one and the same (substance) ... That this person (Father and Son) suffered by being fastened to the tree, and that He commended His spirit unto Himself, having died to appearance, and not being (in reality) dead. (R9.5).

Callistus attempted to confirm this heresy, -a man cunning in wickedness, and subtle where deceit was concerned, (and) who was impelled by restless ambition to mount the episcopal throneNow this man moulded to his purpose Zephyrinus, an ignorant and illiterate individual, and one unskilled in ecclesiastical definitions. And inasmuch as Zephyrinus was accessible to bribes, and covetousCallistus, by luring him through presents, and by illicit demands, was enabled to seduce him into whatever course of action he pleased (R9.6).

It would seem to us desirable to explain the life of this heretic (Callistus), inasmuch as he was born about the same time with ourselves, in order that, by the exposure of the habits of a person of this description, the heresy attempted to be established by him may be easily known, and may perchance be regarded as silly, by those endued with intelligence ... Callistus, however, made away with all (the moneys committed to him), and became involved in pecuniary difficulties ... Fuscianus, however, was swayed by these Jews, and having scourged Callistus, he gave him to be sent to a mine in Sardinia ... But Callistus himself, dropping on his knees, and weeping, entreated that he likewise might obtain a release ... Now (the governor) was persuaded, and liberated Callistus also. And when the latter arrived at Rome, Victor was very much grieved at what had taken place (R9.6-7).

Callistus alleges that the Logos Himself is Son, and that Himself is Father; and that though denominated by a different title, yet that in reality He is one indivisible spirit. And he maintains that the Father is not one person and the Son another, but that they are one and the same; and that all things are full of the Divine Spirit, both those above and those below. And he affirms that the Spirit, which became incarnate in the virgin, is not different from the Father, but one and the same ... And in this way Callistus contends that the Father suffered along with the Son; for he does not wish to assert that the Father suffered, and is one Person, being careful to avoid blasphemy against the Father (R9.7).

The impostor Callistus, having ventured on such opinions, established a school of theology in antagonism to the Church, adopting the foregoing system of instruction. And he first invented the device of conniving with men in regard of their indulgence in sensual pleasures, saying that all had their sins forgiven by himself. For he who is in the habit of attending the congregation of any one else, and is called a Christian, should he commit any transgression; the sin, they say, is not reckoned unto him, provided only he hurries off and attaches himself to the school of Callistus (R9.7).

(Callistus) permitted females, if they were unwedded, and burned with passion at an age at all events unbecoming, or if they were not disposed to overturn their own dignity through a legal marriage, that they might have whomsoever they would choose as a bedfellow, whether a slave or free, and that a woman, though not legally married, might consider such a companion as a husband. Whence women, reputed believers, began to resort to drugs for producing sterility, and to gird themselves round, so to expel what was being conceived on account of their not wishing to have a child either by a slave or by any paltry fellow (R9.7).

Elchasai adopted that tenet of Pythagoras to which I have already alluded. But the Elchasaites have reached such an altitude of pride, that even they affirm themselves to be endued with a power of foretelling futurity, using as a starting-point, obviously, the measures and numbers of the aforesaid Pythagorean art (Refutation of all heresies 9.9).

To those, then, that have been orally instructed by him, he (Elchasai) dispenses baptism in this manner, addressing to his dupes some such words as the following: "If, therefore, (my) children, one shall have intercourse with any sort of animal whatsoever, or a male, or a sister, or a daughter, or hath committed adultery, or been guilty of fornication, and is desirous of obtaining remission of sins, from the moment that he hearkens to this book let him be baptized a second time in the name of the Great and Most High God, and in the name of His Son, the Mighty King" (R9.10).

But in very many other respects he (Elchasai) talks folly, inculcating the use of these sentences also for those afflicted with consumption, and that they should be dipped in cold water forty times during seven days; and he prescribes similar treatment for those possessed of devils (R9.11).

After they had crossed the river Jordan, and had inherited by lot the conquered country, they (the Jews) in various ways rent in sunder the law of God, each devising a different interpretation of the declarations made by God. And in this way they raised up for themselves teachers, (and) invented doctrines of an heretical nature, and they continued to advance into (sectarian) divisions ... For there is a division amongst them into three sorts; and the adherents of the first are the Pharisees, but of the second the Sadducees, while the rest are Essenes (R9.13).

Not even would they (the Essenes) move a utensil from one place to another (on the Sabbath), nor ease nature; nay, some would not even rise from a couch. On other days, however, when they wish to relieve nature, they dig a hole a foot long with the mattock, -for of this description is the hatchet, which the president in the first instance gives those who come forward to gain admission as disciples,- and cover (this cavity) on all sides with their garment, alleging that they do not necessarily insult the sunbeams. They then replace the upturned soil into the pit; and this is their practice, choosing the more lonely spots. But after they have performed this operation, immediately they undergo ablution, as if the excrement pollutes them (R9.20).

But the adherents of another (Essene) party, if they happen to hear any one maintaining a discussion concerning God and His laws-supposing such to be an uncircumcised person, they will closely watch him and when they meet a person of this description in any place alone, they will threaten to slay him if he refuses to undergo the rite of circumcision. Now, if the latter does not wish to comply with this request, an Essene spares not, but even slaughters. And it is from this occurrence that they have received their appellation, being denominated (by some) Zelotae, but by others Sicarii (R9.21).

All those (Greeks) who ventured to make assertions concerning God, or concerning the creation of existing things, derived their principles from no other source than from Jewish legislation. And among these may be particularized Pythagoras especially, and the Stoics, who derived (their systems) while resident among the Egyptians, by having become disciples of these Jews (R9.22).

And (yet there can be little doubt but) that, on beholding the signs of the times of His having been already amongst us, the Jews are troubled; and that they are ashamed to confess that He has come, since they have with their own hands put Him to death, because they were stung with indignation in being convicted by Himself of not having obeyed the laws. And they affirm that He who was thus sent forth by God is not this Christ (whom they are looking for); but they confess that another Messiah will come ... a warlike and powerful individual, who, after having gathered together the entire people of the Jews, and having done battle with all the nations, will restore for them Jerusalem the royal city (R9.25).

It is then possible for those who are disposed to investigate the subject industriously, to perceive how clearly has been demonstrated the existence of a nation of worshippers of the true God, more ancient than all the Chaldeans, Egyptians, and Greeks ... Therefore ye Greeks, Egyptians, Chaldeans, and the entire race of men, become adepts in this doctrine, and learn from us, who are the friends of God, what the nature of God is, and what His well-arranged creation (R10.26-27).

Now it seems expedient, even at the expense of a more protracted investigation, not to shrink from labour; for we shall leave behind us no trifling auxiliary to human life against the recurrence of error, when all are made to behold, in an obvious light, the clandestine rites of these men, and the secret orgies which, retaining under their management, they deliver to the initiated only. But none will refute these, save the Holy Spirit bequeathed unto the Church, which the Apostles, having in the first instance received, have transmitted to those who have rightly believed. But we (the bishops), as being their successors, and as participators in this grace, high-priesthood, and office of teaching, as well as being reputed guardians of the Church, must not be found deficient in vigilance, or disposed to suppress correct doctrine. Not even, however, labouring with every energy of body and soul, do we tire in our attempt adequately to render our Divine Benefactor a fitting return; and yet withal we do not so requite Him in a becoming manner, except we are not remiss in discharging the trust committed to us, but careful to complete the measure of our particular opportunity, and to impart to all without grudging whatever the Holy Ghost supplies (Refutation of all heresies, Proemium).

Those who, desirous of learning, addict themselves to the truth, will be assisted by our discourse to become, when they have learned the fundamental principles of the heresies, more intelligent not only for the easy refutation of those who have attempted to deceive them, but that also, when they have ascertained the avowed opinions of the wise men, and have been made acquainted with them, that they shall neither be confused by them as ignorant persons would, nor become the dupes of certain individuals acting as if from some authority; nay, more than this, they shall be on their guard against those that are allowing themselves to become victims to these delusions (R4.45).

I shall not be silent as regards the opinions of (heresiarchs) who follow these (Ophites in succession); nay, not one (speculation) will I leave unrefuted, if it is possible to remember all (their tenets), and the secret orgies of these (heretics) which one may fairly style orgies,-for they who propagate such audacious opinions are not far distant from the anger (of God) (R6.1).
There are, however, among the Gnostics diversities of opinion; but we have decided that it would not be worth while to enumerate the silly doctrines of these (heretics), inasmuch as they are (too) numerous and devoid of reason, and full of blasphemy (R7.24).

The school of these heretics during the succession of such bishops, continued to acquire strength and augmentation, from the fact that Zephyrinus and Callistus helped them to prevail. Never at any time, however, have we been guilty of collusion with them; but we have frequently offered them opposition, and have refuted them, and have forced them reluctantly to acknowledge the truth. And they, abashed and constrained by the truth, have confessed their errors for a short period, but after a little, wallow once again in the same mire (R9.2).

And so it was that Callistus succeeded in inducing Zephyrinus to create continually disturbances among the brethren, while he himself took care subsequently, by knavish words, to attach both factions in good-will to himself ... Callistus perverted Sabellius himself, and this, too, though he had the ability of rectifying this heretic's error. For (at any time) during our admonition Sabellius did not evince obduracy; but as long as he continued alone with Callistus, he was wrought upon to relapse into the system of Cleomenes by this very Callistus (R9.6).

Zephyrinus would in this way continue to keep up ceaseless disturbance among the people. And we, becoming aware of his sentiments, did not give place to him, but reproved and withstood him for the truth's sake. And he hurried headlong into folly, from the fact that all consented to his hypocrisy -we, however, did not do so- and called us worshippers of two gods, disgorging, independent of compulsion, the venom lurking within him (R9.6).

And thus there appeared another beside Himself. But when I say another, I do not mean that there are two Gods, but that it is only as light of light, or as water from a fountain, or as a ray from the sun. For there is but one power, which is from the All; and the Father is the All, from whom cometh this Power, the Word. And this is the mind which came forth into the world, and was manifested as the Son of God (Against the Heresy of One Noetus, 11).

Thus, after the death of Zephyrinus, supposing that he (Callistus) had obtained (the position) after which he so eagerly pursued (the Pontificate), he excommunicated Sabellius, as not entertaining orthodox opinions. He acted thus from apprehension of me, and imagining that he could in this manner obliterate the charge against him among the churches, as if he did not entertain strange opinions. He was then an impostor and knave, and in process of time hurried away many with him (R9.7).

And many persons were gratified with his regulation, as being stricken in conscience, and at the same time having been rejected by numerous sects; while also some of them, in accordance with our condemnatory sentence, had been by us forcibly ejected from the ChurchNow such disciples as these passed over to these followers of Callistus, and served to crowd his school. This one propounded the opinion, that, if a bishop was guilty of any sin, if even a sin unto death, he ought not to be deposed. About the time of this man, bishops, priests, and deacons, who had been twice married, and thrice married, began to be allowed to retain their place among the clergy (R9.7).

(Elchasai) alleges, as to those who have been involved in every description of lasciviousness, and filthiness, and in acts of wickedness, if only any of them be a believer, that he determines that such a one, on being converted, and obeying the book, and believing its contents, should by baptism receive remission of sins ... And notwithstanding we offered resistance to this, and did not permit many for any length of time to become victims of the delusion. For we carried conviction to the people, when we affirmed that this was the operation of a spurious spirit, and the invention of a heart inflated with pride (R9.8).

It now seems to us that the tenets of both all the Greeks and barbarians have been sufficiently explained by us, and that nothing has remained unrefuted either of the points about which philosophy has been busied, or of the allegations advanced by the heretics. And from these very explanations the condemnation of the heretics is obvious, for having either purloined their doctrines, or derived contributions to them from some of those tenets elaborately worked out by the Greeks, and for having advanced (these opinions) as if they originated from God (R9.26).

(The Doctrine of the Truth): The different principles, however, of what will come into existence, He first fabricated, viz., fire and spirit, water and earth, from which diverse elements He proceeded to form His own creation. And some objects He formed of one essence, but others He compounded from two, and others from three, and others from four. And those formed of one substance were immortal, for in their case dissolution does not follow, for what is one will never be dissolved. Those, on the other hand, which are formed out of two, or three, or four substances, are dissoluble; wherefore also are they named mortal (R10.28).

(The Doctrine of the Truth): The Logos was in the Father Himself, bearing the will of His progenitor, and not being unacquainted with the mind of the Father ... when the Father ordered the world to come into existence, the Logos one by one completed each object of creation, thus pleasing God ... I confess that angels are of fire, and I maintain that female spirits are not present with them. And I am of opinion that sun and moon and stars, in like manner, are produced from fire and spirit [Editor note - concerning the Moon, the plasma energy of fire when it cools becomes solid], and are neither male nor female (R10.29).

You shall escape the boiling flood of hell's eternal lake of fire and the eye ever fixed in menacing glare of fallen angels chained in Tartarus as punishment for their sins; and you shall escape the worm that ceaselessly coils for food around the body whose scum has bred it. Now such (torments) as these shall thou avoid by being instructed in a knowledge of the true God. And thou shalt possess an immortal body, even one placed beyond the possibility of corruption, just like the soul (R10.30).